Paulus Ricius, also known as Paulus Israelita, was a humanist and Kabbalist of Jewish origin, converted to Christianity in 1505. He is known for his contributions to « Christian Hebraism » and for his refutation of Jewish arguments against Christianity through Kabbalah. He was one of the architects of the ‘Christian Kabbalah’ . His work Sha’arei Orah – in Latin Portae lucis, the « Gates of Light », was a source of inspiration for comparable projects initiated by scholars such as Conrad Pellicanus or Guillaume Postel.
By consulting Ricius’ Artis Cabalisticae – Hoc est reconditae theologiae et philosophiae scriptorum (1587), as well as De Arcana Dei Providentia and Portae lucis, I found a list of ten names of God that is worth studying.
1. אדנּי Adonai – The Lord
2. אל חי El Hay – The One who Lives
3. Elohim Zabaoth – The God of the Armies
4. Adonai Zabaoth – The Lord of the Armies
5. יהוה YHVH – Yahweh
6. אלהים Elohim – God (literally: The Gods)
7. אל El – God
8. יהֹוִה The YHVH Tetragram, with Elohim’s vocalization:YeHoViH
9. יה Ioh – First and last letter from YHVH
10. אהיה Ehieh – « I am »
The order of these ten names of God is relatively (but not entirely) arbitrary. No hierarchy is possible or relevant in such a matter, one may assume. Let us note that Guillaume Postel, Thomas Aquinas and Paulus Ricius (and many other specialists) offered very different views on the Names to be retained and listed.
As a matter of principle, God’s Names should be considered to have equal value or status.
However, that does not mean that these Names convey the same meaning, the same weight or have the same value.
Almost two centuries after Ricius, Leibniz proposed thirteen names of God, based on God’s own statement to Moses in Ex. 34:6-7 (as already discussed in my blog The other Other) .
It is interesting, I think, to compare Ricius’ list and Leibniz’ one, with their differences, additions, and yawning gaps.
While comparing and weighing both approaches, one has to remember that the count made by Leibniz is indeed arbitrary, and the base for his reasoning quite fragile, though intellectually stimulating.
There is no certainty either that Paulus Ricius’ version of the ten Names may be more accurate.
We should not be too shy entering this field of questioning, either. What is here at stake is to look for some kind of heuristics, akin to serendipity, to help us, poor humans, in mapping our way around a very difficult subject.
For that matter, it may seem relevant to analyze the relationship between the ten names of God and the ten Sefirot, which are divine emanations.
Here is the list of Sefirot as declined in Latin by Paulus Ricius:
Corona. Prudentia. Sapientia. Pulchritudo. Fortitudo. Magnificentia. Fundamentum. Confessio. Victoria. Regnum.
The Hebrew names of Sefirot quoted in the Kabbalah are the following:
Keter (crown), Hokhma (wisdom), Bina (understanding), Hessed (mercy), Gevurah (discipline), Tiferet (beauty), Netzah (victory), Hod (splendour), Yesod (foundation), Malkuth (kingship).
The Sefirot names are organized in a figure, which evokes a kind of human body, very schematic, with corona for head, sapientia and prudentia as two eyes or two ears, fortitudo and magnificentia for both arms, pulchritudo for heart, confessio and victoria for both legs, fundamentum for ‘foundation’ (euphemism for anus) and regnum for sex.
It is certainly worth trying to meditate on possible equivalences or connections between the Sefirot and the ten Names of God, looking for analogies or anagogies :
Corona – Keter may be linked to ‘Adonai’. The Lord wears the only crownthat be. However, who anointed Him? And what this crown is made of? Gold or thorns?
Prudentia – Bina may be linked to ‘YHVH’. God is prudent, and understanding. This is why He did not reveal the meaning of His Name, nor its vocalization.
Sapientia – Hokhma may be linked to ‘El Hay’. Wisdom is always alive in God.
Pulchritudo – Tiferet may be linked to ‘Elohim’. The Scriptures mentions the beauty of the three Men ‘who were God’, meeting Abraham under the oak of Mamre.
Fortitudo – Gevurah may be linked to ‘Adonai Zabaoth’. The ‘Lord of the Armies’ incarnates the essence of forceand discipline.
Magnificentia – Hod may be linked to ‘Elohim Zabaoth’. How could the ‘God of the Hosts’ not embody magnificence in all its glory?
Fundamentum – Yesod may be linked to ‘Ioh’. The Name Ioh incarnates the foundation of divinity, with its two fundamental letters.
Confessio – Hessed may be linked to ‘Yehovih’. How can you get mercy without at least requesting it, by confessing your sins? The Tetragram YHVH intertwined with the vowels of Elohim is analogous to mercy penetrating the heart.
Victoria – Netzah may be linked to ‘El’. Only El, at the end of times, — or at the ‘extreme’ summit of His eternity –, will be victorious.
Regnum – Malkuth may be linked to ‘Ehieh’. By saying « I am whom I will be », God establishes His reign once for all, for the present and the future.
Of course Kabbalah literature is rich in temptatives to link the sefirot to different Names of God.
For instance, just to give a glimpse of possible, acceptable, variations on the same theme, one may quote the following series of associations, that I found in the online literature on the subject.
I would like to note in passing that, after having forged the associations listed above, I discovered that two associations (out of ten) were similar in the list quoted below. I mention this only to show the power (and the limitations) of heuristic serendipity in this obscure arcane.
Regnum – Malkuth linked to ‘Adonaï ha Aretz,‘ The Lord of the Earth.
Fundamentum – Yesod linked to ‘Shaddaï El Haï‘ (The Omnipotent Living God).
Magnificentia – Hod linked to ‘Elohim Zabaoth‘ (The God of Armies), — like we did (see above).
Victoria – Netzah linked to ‘YHVH Zabaoth‘ (YHVH of the Hosts).
Pulchritudo – Tiferet linked to ‘Aloah‘ (The Divinity).
Fortitudo – Gevurah linked to ‘Elohim Gibor’ (The Strong God).
Confessio – Hessed linked to ‘El‘ (God).
Prudentia – Bina linked to ‘YHVH‘, — just like we did (see above).
Sapientia – Hokhma linked to ‘Iah‘ (another vocalization of the short Name ‘YH’)
Corona – Keter linked to ‘Eyeh‘ (‘I am’).
What can we learn from this sort of exercise?
We learn that all divine Names are ‘ living’ metaphors, which means that they ‘live’ and the may ‘die’.
But all these metaphors, in a way, are also (metaphorically) ‘gravid’, ‘pregnant’ with other, unheard of, new Names, yet to be born out of the most profound depths of language and of our souls.