In the Rig-Veda, the name Bhārata ( भारत ) designates the God Agni, and the sacred fire. It is a Sanskrit word of Vedic origin. Its root is bhar, « to carry ». Bhārata etymologically means the « carrier ».
Why is this? Because the fire of the sacrifice « carries » the offerings.
Bhārata is also the name of India in Sanskrit, the name of an emperor and that of the mythical author of famous treatises of the Theater, the Nâtya-shâstra and the Gītālamkāra .
René Daumal, who learned Sanskrit, made a remarkable effort to translate into French the texts of Bhārata, the playwright, using a beautiful and poetic language.
Bhārata tells the story of the birth of Knowledge and the origin of Flavor.
Kings, peoples, prophets, and even the Gods themselves, generally ignore what this Knowledge is all about, and they ignore this Flavor.
They all climb one after the other on the great stage of the world theater to utter some lines of relative brillance. But they speak without this Knowledge, without this Flavor.
The innate art of language is not natural to them. They certainly do not excel at it. They know nothing of the only true poetry.
Where is the essence of true poetry? In the Flavor of Life. In the Sapience of Taste.
Shortly before his death, Daumal gave the Cahiers du Sud a few poems with a Vedic touch:
« Into blind darkness enters
Those who are dedicated to the non-knowledge ;
Into even darker darkness
Those who are content with knowledge. » i
Neither breath, nor sight, nor hearing, nor thought are here of any help. We must get rid of them. We need to reach back to the ancient, to the original. To rise higher, to dive deep to the sources, to look for the Breath of the breath, the Sight of the sight, the Hearing of the hearing, the Thought of the thought.
The wise man will recognize what is meant here. Words are no longer in use. They make speech look weak.
Daumal, however, tried to reach out to us, beyond the lines, with words.
« We say that Knowledge is power and foresight. For the Hindu, it is ‘to become’, and to ‘be transformed’. » ii
Words, he taught, have a literal meaning, derived meanings, and more importantly, suggested meanings. It is the immense, loose and delicate universe of verbal « resonances » (dhvani), « suggestions » (vyanjanâ) and « tastes » (rasanâ).
The Flavor is a « conscious joy », even in pain, it is a knowledge that shines forth from its obviousness, it is the sister of the sacred.
Daumal asserts that « he who is capable of perceiving it, ‘tastes’ it, not as a separate thing, but as his own essence. » iii
Thus the poem becomes analogous to oneself. Its flavor is its own « self », its « essence », its « soul ».
Flavor has three functions: sweetness, which « liquefies the spirit »; ardor, which « sets it ablaze » and exalts it; and evidence, which « illuminates » it.
Daumal even asserts: « All the poems recited and all the songs, without exception, are portions of Vishnu, the Great Being, clothed in sound form »iv.
The poem is nothing but wind, if it does not set the whole world and the soul in motion, by sounds, senses, resonances, gait and loves.
Nothing Greek in this. No quiet light. No sea in the sun, no complicit nature. India is already far away, beyond all nature. In freedom, one might say, at last.
« I have settled in the heart of each being.
By Me, come and go memories and knowledge.
The purpose of all knowledge is I alone who am to know.
I am the author of the End of Knowledge.
I am the one who knows this Knowledge. » v
iLes Cahiers du Sud. Special issue 1941 » Message actuel de l’Inde « . Extract from Brihadâranyaka. IV. 4. 10-21. Translated by René Daumal.
iiBharata. René Daumal. Gallimard. 1970. To approach the Hindu poetic art.
vBhagavad Gîtâ, 15, 15 (transl. Ph. Quéau)